Harnessing the Potential of IoT Device Firmware for Enterprise Jayesh Patil August 16, 2023

Harnessing the Potential of IoT Device Firmware for Enterprise

The Internet of Things (IoT) has bridged the gap between the digital and physical realms in an increasingly interconnected world.  IoT’s evolution spans smart homes to AI-powered supply chain robots and advanced irrigation systems. Modern consumers expect feature-rich, high-quality, secure, and regularly updated IoT products. 

As the IoT marketplace matures, companies must reassess their development strategies to meet these demands, adapting to the dynamic IoT landscape. This article uncovers the untapped potential of IoT device firmware and its pivotal role in shaping the future of technology.

IoT Device Firmware 101

Firmware is a type of software stored in a device’s non-volatile memory. These components help the device’s hardware operate correctly. 

Simply put, firmware for IoT devices is a program that makes a device perform as intended.

This firmware includes multiple components such as the bootloader, kernel, filesystem, and other resources. Let us break these down:

  • Bootloader: This is the taskmaster of your device. It kick-starts essential hardware parts and ensures they have the resources they require.
  • Kernel: Consider this the heart of your device. It is a go-between for the hardware and software to ensure their smooth functioning.
  • File System: This is your device’s storage locker. It holds all the files needed for your device to perform well and includes web servers and network services.

Understanding Different Types of Firmware

Firmware is crucial for IoT applications, and there are several types to familiarize yourself with. These are grouped based on the degree of firmware integration.

High-Level Firmware

High-level firmware is complex and allows for updates. Found on flash memory chips within a computer, this type of firmware is the most advanced level available for server or power subsystems.

Low-Level Firmware

Low-level firmware forms an essential component of a device’s hardware. It is stored on non-volatile read-only chips like ROM, making it unalterable. Devices with low-level firmware employ one-time programmable memory.

Subsystem Firmware

Subsystem firmware is part of an embedded system, similar to high-level firmware’s complexity and upgradability. An example is the hardware in a web server system that operates semi-independently from the server itself.

The Startup Process of an IoT Device

Intrigued by how your coffee machine automatically prepares your morning joe? Or how irrigation systems intelligently water crops based on weather conditions? 

It is the magic of IoT (Internet of Things) technology. But, how does an IoT device start? Let’s understand:

  • Initially, the bootloader sparks the system setup software, passing it to the physical address of the operating system (OS) kernel.
  • Next, the kernel, residing in this physical address, springs into action, initiating the primary operations of the IoT device.
  • Once the kernel is operational, the bootloader ceases to function. 
  • Subsequently the root file system, which indexes all the directories and files of the OS, is incorporated into the kernel.
  • Finally, a ‘called program’ is created within the kernel, kick-starting the IoT device.


Firmware Security

Implementing security at the firmware level for IoT devices is crucial for warding off cyber threats. It paves the way for strong IoT security oversight and management in the long run.

 Our interaction with computers is, in general, limited to software and hardware. This led us to overlook the crucial third layer – the firmware.

Serving as an interface, firmware simplifies many low-level, hardware-specific operational details. This makes it easier for one or more software systems to run concurrently.

In the IoT landscape, this principle is equally important. A firmware security solution allows central management and updates of IoT device security from a cloud platform. 

Owing to their unique security needs, many traditional cybersecurity systems are incompatible with IoT devices.

Navigating Key IoT Security Hurdles: What You Need to Know

Securing IoT devices is a complex task with several challenges. Here are a few:

Absence of Clear IoT Standards

The lack of stringent IoT regulations contributes to weak security. Without clear standards, IoT devices struggle to meet basic cybersecurity needs. Manufacturers, without proper guidelines, cannot sufficiently address this issue.

Risky Network Connections

Many IoT devices now use 5G and directly connect to the public internet. This exposure makes them vulnerable as they lack the protective layer of corporate security systems.

Third-Party Component Use

IoT devices often use parts from third-party suppliers, adding to their risk. The device becomes a potential threat if these parts have exploitable security flaws. Users are understandably wary of insecure devices.

Inadequate Device Patching and Management

IoT devices often fall under a “set and forget” approach. Standard corporate security protocols may overlook IoT devices like connected appliances. As a result, these devices’ vulnerabilities often remain unpatched, making them an attractive target for cyber attackers.

 The Crucial Role of Firmware Security

Firmware is located below the software layer, proving difficult to secure without a specialized approach. This brings us to Firmware security. It carries significant importance for both IoT device manufacturers and users for several reasons:

Building Trust with Customers

Users of IoT devices seek assurance that the products they use are resilient to cyber threats and protect their confidential data. Manufacturers can provide this security guarantee by strengthening the firmware layer of IoT devices. This enhances their brand reputation and increases customer satisfaction.

Gaining a Competitive Edge

Robust IoT cybersecurity standards, especially in firmware, allow manufacturers to highlight their device’s advanced security features. It provides a competitive advantage that resonates with discerning consumers.

Complying with Regulations

While a standardized regulatory framework may seem distant, authorities strive to enact IoT security laws and enforce robust security practices to mitigate IoT-related cyber threats. Compliance with these evolving regulations is essential to future-proof a manufacturer’s IoT operations.

Enabling Integrated Security

IoT devices have specific security needs that often make traditional cybersecurity measures ineffective. Therefore, effective monitoring and management of IoT devices necessitate a specialized firmware security solution.

Broadening Market Opportunities

Certain sectors have stringent standards for the IoT devices they deploy in their networks, especially those handling sensitive data. Implementing firmware security allows an IoT device manufacturer to meet these standards, expanding their market presence.

Streamlining Device Security Management

As noted earlier, effectively monitoring and managing IoT devices can be complex, leaving them open to potential cyber threats. A cloud-based firmware security solution enables centralized management. This reduces vulnerability and enhances overall security.

Steps to Enact Firmware Security Measures

Firmware security is necessary for IoT devices for its several benefits. Enabling firmware security involves three steps.

  • First, pinpoint potential weak spots in your IoT device. It helps identify where attacks could happen.
  • Secondly, guard your IoT devices against cyber threats. Implementing firmware security plays a crucial role here. It has several benefits, such as: 
  • Protection from unforeseen attacks 
  • Performance remains unimpacted
  • Provides thorough firmware coverage 
  • Shields during operation
  • Easy to install
  • The last step is continuous monitoring of your IoT device’s cybersecurity. A proper solution allows managing updates and security parameters of IoT devices from an online cloud-based portal. 

Remember, IoT devices constitute 30% of all network-connected endpoints, thus expanding the threat surface. Hence, it’s vital to repair bugs, incorporate new security measures, and patch vulnerabilities in firmware.

A Comprehensive Discussion on Firmware Analysis

Firmware for IoT devices is a complex amalgamation of various sections, each contributing to its functionality. To analyze firmware in-depth, we first need to identify these individual sections. Unlike a simple binary data piece, firmware reveals its distinct areas when viewed through a hexadecimal editor. The signature bytes from each section provide insights into its specific role within the firmware.

Understanding IoT Firmware File Types

Before we dive into the firmware, it’s crucial to comprehend what to anticipate during our analysis. The focal point here is the file system. An IoT device’s file system can vary based on manufacturer specifications and the device’s intended purpose.

Each file system type bears a unique signature header, aiding us in locating the file system’s start point within the binary firmware.

Typically, IoT devices employ several file systems:

  • squashfs: A read-only file type primarily used to store compressed files and reduce data overhead.
  • cramps: A file type designed for embedded and small-footprint systems.
  • JFFS2: A log-structured file system created to manage flash memory devices.
  • yaffs2: Another log-structured file system that writes in each chunk only once, holding adequate information and reshuffling the chunk order based on recency.
  • ext2: An extended file system largely used to accelerate processes.

Compression Types in IoT Devices

In addition to various file systems, IoT devices also use different compression types. Using a compressed file system conserves precious storage space on IoT devices. The most encountered compression types in IoT devices include:

  • LZMA
  • gzip
  • Zip
  • zlib
  • ARJ

These compression types help optimize the performance and storage of IoT devices, making them an integral part of firmware analysis.


Top 5 IoT Firmware Analysis and Monitoring Tools: Overview

Searching for reliable and user-friendly IoT firmware analysis and monitoring tools? Below we present a curated list of top-notch platforms to aid your IoT firmware management and analysis tasks:

AWS IoT Device Defender

This firmware for IoT devices offers audit and monitoring features. It collects security metrics from paired devices and examines cloud configurations.Moreover, it ensures device authentication and employs Machine Learning (ML) techniques for anomaly detection.

The firmware persistently oversees operations, issuing proactive alerts about potential security risks. It also provides in-built measures to identify, rectify and control security threats.

Google Cloud IoT Core

Google Cloud IoT Core is a popular firmware for IoT devices that effortlessly establishes secure connections with IoT devices to fetch and retrieve data. It’s known for its ability to develop feature-rich applications that integrate well with other big data services.

McAfee Embedded Control (MEC)

MEC is a low-cost IoT security firmware that requires minimal computing space. It employs a hands-off deployment approach and offers blocking and list solutions for IoT devices. MEC’s specialty lies is preventing unauthorized alterations to the authorized commercial baseline data.


Provided by INKA Entworks Inc., AppSealing is a no-code, cloud-based security solution for apps and mobile IoT devices. It is compatible with iOS, Android, and Enterprise-Grade Hybrid OS and protects against data manipulation and theft. AppSealing is widely used in industries with strict compliance requirements like IoT, gaming, fintech, banking, eCommerce, media, healthcare, and government.

Azure Sphere

Azure Sphere is a comprehensive IoT platform focusing on building and maintaining secure, intelligent devices at a reasonable cost. It utilizes a crossover embedded processor MCU core, a tailor-made high-performing Linux OS, and a cloud-based security solution. Azure Sphere facilitates interoperability between IoT platform services for a streamlined deployment process. 

Wrapping It Up

Prioritizing IoT device firmware security is crucial for shaping the future of technology. It leads to reliable, secure, innovative IoT products meeting evolving needs. Embracing the untapped potential of IoT device firmware will enable companies to thrive in the rapidly advancing IoT marketplace. It will offer advanced solutions and drive technological advancements in various industries.

Ready to revolutionize your business with IoT? Drop us an email in our mailbox at queries@avigna.ai.

Avigna is a fast-growing IoT implementation partner for Manufacturing Companies. Connect with us on LinkedIn. 

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